जनजाती र आरछन
- राज्यको पुरानो एकल शासकिय सन्चालन बाट पछाडि पारीएका हुनाले राज्यका सम्पूर्ण अङगहरुमा निस्चित सिट ब्यबस्था गरिएको हो। बर्तमान अन्तरिम सम्बिधानको धारा ३५ मा महिला, आदिवासी,पछाडिएका,मधेसी,र दलित,को हक र अधिकारलाई सुनिस्चित गरिने गरी ब्यबस्था छ।
जनजातिलाई आरछन किन?
निस्चित भुगोलमा बसोबास गर्नेसमुदाय,आफ्नै पहिचान,सस्क्रिती,भाशा सामुहिक भावना भएका मानिसहरु लाई जनजाती भनिएको छ। जनजातिको बर्तमान अबस्थितिलाई केलाउनको लागि एैतिहासिक,सामाजिक, आर्थिक,सास्क्रितिक, भाषिक पक्षलाई केलाउन आबस्यक छ
जयस्थिती मल्लले ब्रम्मन, छेत्री, बैश र छुद्र कामको eआधारमा जातजातिलाई बर्गिकरन गरेका थिए। राज्यले २०१८ सालमा किपट प्रथा उन्मुलन, गरी जनजातीहरु को किपट जग्गा र २०२१ सालमा भुमिसुधार लागु गरी जनजाती प्रती अन्याय गरेको तथ्य पाईन्छ।
पूर्वमा बसोबास गर्ने किरात,लिम्बु र हिन्दू बाहुन बिच मनमुटाब र अबरोध मुलत लिम्बुहरुको जमिनमा हिन्दू ब्रामनको बसाईसराइ बाट भएको हो। राज्यले उच्च हिन्दू बाहुन हरुलाई त्यस ठाउमा बसोबास गराउन बिशेष भूमिका खेलेको थियो।(Lionel caplan-'land and social change',estern part of nepal,1970)
सामाजिक असमानता- राज्यका स्रोत र साधन माथि उच्च जाती हरुकै बाहुल्य थियो र छ। समाजमा जनजातिले भैंसी,सुगुर खान हुने बाहुनले खान नहुने,उच्च र निचको रेखा कोरिएको थियो। बाहुनले पढ्न हुने अन्य जातिले पढेमा कानमा झिरा हाली दन्ड सजाय दिईने तथ्य हरु पनि पाइन्छन।
१०४ बर्ष जहानिय राणा शासनले नेपाललाई ईतिहासका पानामा सयौ बर्ष पछाडि पारेको छ। जनजाती हरु को अवस्था अझ दयानिय छ। प्रजातन्त्र पछीका समय,२००७ देखी २०६३ सम्म राज्यको व्यबहार जनजाती सस्क्रिती प्रती अर्घेउलो हुदै आयो। एक भाषा एक सस्क्रिती अङगालेर बेवस्था गरिएको हो।
राजनैतीक रुपमा जनजाती- मुलुकी ऐन,१९१० जङ बहादुर को पालामा र २०२० भादौ १,नया मुलुकी ऐन ले जनजातीलाई प्रस्टरुपमा बिभेद गर्नु राजनिती प्रमुख हो। यसमा हस्तान्तरन गर्ने २१२ जना मध्य ९५% उच्च जातले नै ओगटेको थियो।
राज्यको प्रत्येक अङगमा,न्ययिक,प्रशासनिक,नागरिक ओहदामा पहाडी उच्च जातकै बोलवाला छ। सन १९९९ सम्म सताधारी बर्गमा जनजाती ८% मात्रै थियो।
मानब बिकास सँग जोडीएको महत्वपूर्ण आर्थिक अवस्था हो। यसरी जनजातीको आर्थिक अवस्था हेर्दा कमजोर रहेको छ। आर्थिक स्रोत भनेका किसानी र बिदेशी सैनिक हुन। त्यस्तै जनजाती प्रती ब्यक्ती आय हेर्दा औसत १५,७३० छ भने बाहुन छेत्री २४,५९९ रहेको छ। (डा।हर्क गुरुङ)
मानब बिकासको लागि पढाई आधारभुत सुचान्क हो। पढाई हासिल गरेपछी अन्य छेत्रमा ढोका खुल्छ। अङ्क मात्र चिन्न सक्ने मान्छेलाई नेपालमा मानिन्छ। उच्च पढाई हासिल गर्ने जनजातीको सन्ख्या(२००१) २८% र स्नातक र माथि २२% रहेको छ। बाँकी सोलगोल,अन्य जात,६७%, माथि ७३% छ ( हर्क गुरुङ)
आरछन- समाबेशी सिदान्तको अबधारणा बमोजिम स्रोत साधनमा पहुच नभएका जाती,बर्ग लाई सिमित प्रकियाबाट राज्यको सम्यन्त्र, स्रोत साधनमा आफ्ना अधिकार समानताको बिकास गर्नु हो। समाबेसी अन्तर्गतका निकाय हरु- २०५८ -जनजाती उत्थान प्रतिस्ठान,२०५८, नेपा ल लमहिला आयोग-२०५८, नेपाल दलित आयोग-२०६०,आर्थिक,सामाजिक रुपान्तरनको मार्गदर्सक नितिहरु-२०६०, आरछन सुझाब समिती-२०६१,आरछन सम्बन्धी घोषणा
जनजाती प्रतिस्ठान,दलित र महिलाको लागि आयोग र सकरात्मक बिभेदका कार्यक्रमहरु नेपाल सरकारले माओबादी सँग सम्झौता(२०५८)को परिनाम हो। (त्यसमा माओबादिका ४१ बुदेमध्य ११ वटा सामाजिक समाबिशीसँग सम्बन्धित थियो
जनजाती आरछन सम्बन्धी चुनौतीहरु-
नेपालको जनसनख्या को एक तिहाइ जनजाती हरुलाई पछाडि पार्नु राज्यलाई पक्षघात गर्नु सरह हो। त्यसैले सबैलाई सबल बनाउन राज्यको दायित्व हो। आरछनले देशलाई कुभलो भन्दा भलो नै हुनेछ। जनजाती आरछन राज्यको बिभेदनितीको परिनाम स्वरुप हो।
जनजातिलाई अबसर सँगै चुनौती पनी प्रसस्त छन।
- आरछन बाट स्रीजना हुने मानसिक दुरबलता हटाउन जरुरी छ।
-योग्यता पुगेका जनजातीहरु आरछन भित्र सिमित प्रतिस्पदा मात्रा नभएर खुलामा पनि अबसरमा परिनत गरिनुपर्छ । अन्यथा जनजातीहरु सामाजिक,सास्कृतिक,भाषिक मात्र नभै मानसिक रुपमा पनि पछाडि र कमजोर हुन्छन भन्ने सोच आम मनिसमा आउन सक्छ.
जनजाती र आरछन
लैङिक अद्द्यनको उत्पती र बिकास
लैङिक अद्द्यन र उत्पतिको मुख्य जराको रुiपमा ऐतिहासिiक घटना, महिला आन्दोलन र महिला सम्बन्धी साहित्य हुन।
ऐतिहासिक घटना- १७औ सताब्दिकोr अन्त्य तिर र आठरौ सतब्दिको शुरुतिर यूरोप र अमेरिकामा बिकासको समय थियो जसलाई हामी period of enlightenment भन्दाछौ। यस समयमा धर्मिक स्वतन्त्रता, तर्क,प्रबिधी,समनता को आदर्श बिकास भएको थियो। फ्रान्सको क्रान्तिलाई यस्तो रुपमा हामी चिन्न सक्छौ।
फ्रान्सको क्रान्ति ले पनि यही स्वतन्त्रता,समनता र भात्रित्वको आदर्शलाई बोकेको थियो। त्यसपछी को क्रान्तिलाई सम्पूर्ण मानबको अधिकारको क्रान्ति भनियो। अग्र पङ्तिका महिलाबादी लेखक मेरी वल्लस्तिअन्क्रफ्तका अनुसार लोग्ने मान्छे र भाईचाराले मात्रै हैन त्यमा प्रिथबीको आधा भाग महिलाले ओगटेको छ। e
त्यस्तै लैङिक अध्ययनको लागि महत्वपूर्ण ऐतिहासिक घटना औधोगिक क्रान्तिलाई लिन सकिन्छ जसले पूँजीवादको जन्म दियो। औधोगिक क्रान्तिले महिललाई दुई किसिमले प्रभाब पारेको थियो।
१ पहिलो- महिलाको घर भित्रको काम र समयलाई कम गरिदियो २ दोस्रो- धेरै महिलालाई सार्वजनिक छेत्रमा समाबेश गर्नलाई मदत गर्यो। यसले समाज मा बद्लिदो परिस्थितीमा महिलालाई परिवर्तन हुन मद्त गर्यो।
महिला आन्दोलन- महिला हरुको पहिलो तरङको आन्दोलन १८६० यूरोप र अमेरिका मा सुरु भएको थियो। त्यसको मुख्य उदेस्य मतदिने अधिकार भएपनी, महिलाको समानता र स्वतन्त्रता थियो। दोस्रो तरङ जुन १९६० मा सुरु भएको थियो। त्यसपछिका दिनहरुमा धेरै महिला सम्बन्धी सिद्धन्तहरु बिकास भयो पाइन्छ। मध्य १९औ सतब्दी तिर सामाजिक बिचारधारा भएको मान्छेहरु महिलाको समाजमा भूमिका बारे लेख्न वाध्य भए। यसरी लैङिक अध्ययन सुरु भएको थियो।
महिला साहित्य - mery wallastaincraft,' vendication of the rights of women' प्रकाशन भएदेखी धेरै महिला सम्बन्धी दृष्टिकोन हरु बाहिर आएका थिए।
लैङिक बिकास- लैङिक बिकास कसरी भयो भन्ने सन्दर्भमा महिला र पुरुष दुबै समाजीक सँरचना सँग सम्बन्धित छन। मुख्यतय लैङीक अध्ययन १९६०को दसक बाट महिलाको सचेतना सँगै पुरुष बाट दबिएका बिषय आउन थालेका हुन। महिलाको बिषयमा मानब शास्त्रमा प्रश्न उथाईन थालिएको हो। यसले महिला केन्द्रित अबधारणालाई प्रधान दियो। लैङिक अद्द्ययनका महत्वपूर्ण बिषयहरु
१-कसरी र समाजिक सस्थागत अबधारणाले लैङिक फरक पार्यो?
२- कसरी सबै समाजमा महिलाहरु पुरुष निर्भर भएको देखिन्छ?
लैङिक आन्दोलनका बर्तमान धारहरु-
साधारणतय १९८० को दसकपछी लैङिक अद्द्ययनले समाबेश गरेका बिषयहरु
-महिलाको अवस्था समाजिक समरचना ,आफन्त,परिवार र आर्थिक घरेलुमाl
-महिलामा आधुनिकताको प्रभाब,बिशेष ग्रामीण महिलामा
-औधोगिकरन र भुगोलिकरन को महिलामा असर
Chess and thought
Chess is a game of mind. This is different game than that of other games. To play it no age bar, no male and female, no physically strong and weak, anyone can play for entertainment. Couple of days ago, after two years of long time with the view to indulge with some of the friends played the chess. What i realized at that time was I just know the rules. No more than that. Meanwhile, I also felt that ‘the more we practice the more we stick to the right direction’.
We, Gajendra lohorung, Anish lohorung, Nirvik lohorung, were gathered specially to play chess, to be frank. Interestingly, while playing no one won all players continuously, all of us remained winner as well as loser. I mean one winner defeated another winner. Again another winner was defeated by one loser. During the time, good sense of humor would blast up; to some extent it remained fruitful as well
Mostly, Gajendra played defensive less attacking, likewise Anish was good attacking but less defensive and Nirvik was good defensive. Their game was quite interesting. Game between Gajendra and Anish, since their method of mobilizing was different, there was always remained space but both of them had good encounter.
I have played chess innumerable but still I have less knowledge about it. Although I have been playing chess for childhood days, the graduated scale was during my bachelor college. There were organized different games in college. The System was that any student could participate for the game. With some friends, we decided to take part three different games and one volunteer. Chess, football and volleyball were three games.
For chess, there were 36 participants including me. I had never played chess formally organized before. I had to defeat six participants. When I arrived for the second position, it was one of the tough games for me because he was the participant of lalitpur championship. It was early morning our game start. I was quite in tensed. I kept thinking how to play how to trap him. We played two sets of which both I kept in my domination.
Finally he agreed. ‘You played well, both sets you played differently, first set quite defensive and last one defensive as well as attacking, he said’. That was the first time I had realized how i played. During the game, he did sacrifice many times in order to keep me in trap, it was his best techniques.
Gajendra, Nirvik,Anish and Nabin were not played less interesting, but I accept that we could not heat the iron when it was red.
Lastly, I suggest everyone to play chess. It is interesting game not only that, it also identifies your thoughts and ideas. Your decision, endurance and calculations must have at right time. This process can also be applied in your life.
A professor was teaching the features of a drama in the class how mode of drama has taken place. Students were listening audio of characters’ conversation. The professor was assuring characters’ dialogues the way they have spoken. Situation was quite critical that colonel was forcefully saying to confess the accusation.
At the same time, a man enters into the classroom near to the professor as soon as class was over. He was chief of army. They were friend, it was nothing but he invites to the professor to attend at the theatre where a drama is going to be shown. Moreover, a minister will be watching the drama as well. Chorus and protagonist of the drama present an episode of a drama. The drama was written by a man, who was also known as poet, sitting in the chair watching attentively.
And, the fact was that the character who presented drama was Manaslu, the mistress of the writer. They were revolutionist of the country or say, communists. Actually, ‘army chief and minister’ both were making mission to arrest them, because they were revolutionists working against existing state’s policy.
Now, the mission comes on the head of professor to accomplish it on stipulated time because, he was supposed to be expert. For that, everything was set up including recording equipments of the couples and their colleagues. The main task of professor was then to hear their each moment and submit the report to army chief.
He reports whatever he thinks important. Since he was great fan of the lady artiste, he was more enthusiasts to know about them. Day, week passed, he goes no reporting. He records their daily activities and scans it to white sheet. Their relationship seemed sentimentally well attached. It was Thursday evening, she goes out to meet her school mate from the room but she goes to the minister because he has relationship with him also.
The writer has already suspected her but he did not ask anything neither did she reveal. She came and slept without speaking even one word. She was shivering with cold, seeing in pathetic condition, he covers with his warm hands. After an hour, he asked her but, she was trying to deceive him. He says that he knows everything where she goes.
She gets shocked with his words, after a minute with long breath, she was says that she went with minister many times because she wanted him alive besides her, if she was not with minister, his life was in danger. ‘I am unwillingly doing this, she says’. The writer blushed with anger- To do this for saving his life was like deceiving his own self and country. Their discussion was quite serious, the professor was listening.
The professor, on the other hand, was not ready to report about the subject matter what about them was going on. The chief was trying to collect authentic evidence against minister and them, so that file is writ to court. The professor knew what army chief, his friend, was doing. He had understood his project properly.
One day professor was drinking in the pub, some people were laughing, and some places were seen empty table. A lady enters and sits next to his table, asks drinks. It was same lady, the artiste. The professor was cool and reserved nature goes to her table, as a well-wisher greets her. But she was serious, unwanted to chat as though she was seen that she was doing something wrong. They were never talked each other before. At once, the professor spit it out that her beautiful face would change if there was something wrong. “Life is not drama where life is disguised with full of happiness, she resists”. An artist also can be on pathetic situation. She departs at once saying that college mate is waiting outside.
One week later, with the help to his colleague, the writer was planning to write an article about the ‘state’s policy’ on behalf of its people. With long effort a friend provides him a typewriter. If any security agency found it, they would be sent in jail so, they had to do this task with precautious. Everyday after writing, He hides it under the ground right to main door. He had not told her either. Once, as a usual, he was keeping it on her absence; but, unfortunately, she saw it from the passage while she was coming. But she neglected it as if it was not an important.
Security agency had managed the room on the top floor of house. Every evening professor would come and depart in the early morning. He prepares reports if there had happened something special. But when chief of army asks, he replies no thing is going on.
Meantime, news hit the market in which state’s oppression had been exposed. It became the issue everywhere even to the minister and chief of army. Immediately, the professor was called to inquire but he did not reveal reality though he knew everything. He had realized that what they were doing was not against the sovereignty rather they were digging a well for freedom.
They got no option to do, the minister thinks for a while and orders to arrest the lady artiste for 24 hours for inquiry how it happened. On the contrary, chief of army warned to professor to find out the facts. She recognizes him; however the professor had no choice. He interrogates some questions.
‘So, you work for security agency? She interrupts’ He reiterates her performance that he always appreciated her. He also promises to save writer’s life and her life if she reveals where the typewriter is. Now she agrees and says that it has been hid under the ground near the main door. At once the professor went out. The troops of army go to the writers’ apartment where typewriter was supposed to be hidden. The security agency knock the door, the writer get surprised when he sees her mistress is with agency. As she said agency opened up the cover, but they got nothing. The chief was out of control. He begins to curse her.
Manaslu runs out of the house. She knew that she had betrayed the writer. The professor was leaning against police’s truck, she was running so fast, she was crying. When she was crossing the road, a car knocked her down. On the road, covered with spot of red blood, first the professor reached near but she was almost dead. When he tries to wake up she last opened her eyes and spoke a word ‘thank you’ to him.
The government then announced real federal state where every stakeholder of state will have freedom of expression. One year later, in anniversary, a drama was presented on the story of the writer. It was splendid performances. Seeing the every moment of own life, the writer cannot believe it. He knows when asks to see reports. All the files made on piles, he got real information on the drama library that his article published date, hiding the typewriter under the ground, typewriter taken out before security agency reached there.
Prepared by PANASI 063
The writer gets the professor as news deliverer in federal state.
My life: My belief
I believe in word because it has power to change the life; I knew the hidden power of letter when I entered into the class of adult education at the very beginning. There, I saw three letter of my name from very close, came to know for the first time that I am not the chamili called by all, but chameli- A tiny mode of writing changed my name. I thought at that time as if it is magic
Chameli waiba, resident of bajrabarahi in makawanpur, 37 years old, married 25 years ago. She spent 24 years being alone, isolated husband. She believes in the magic of words, that word whose support has changed her utter life, changed her world.
In 2051 in the evening for the first time I knew three letters. What I felt that time was we get name if we know three letters, if we know all letters we shall get real life either. I wrote my name again and again, when I got return at home in the evening. What a great task was it to write own name in life! Then a kind of attachment it increased to know letters that I started taking books while going for cutting grass.
My life was like a manmade lake nearby village before knowing my life, dammed always. I had a pain of childhood marriage, agony of poverty; no accompany of husband, neither had a skill nor courage- that of today, tomorrow and day after tomorrow life was going to be more difficult, it was growing the number of educated people day by day. Moreover, their life seemed to have made easier, then I began to realized that neither wealth nor beauty in life, rather I was betrayed of letters in life.
With the magic of word, I was fully fueled by self- confidence and courage that made restless of curiosity, ‘my life is gone but younger brothers and sisters should reach towards all letters wherever they want, I committed’. But for that, Tashar River was big problem beneath the house; rest of the world was across the river. School children would not go to school in the summer being unable to cross the river. I dreamt of a suspending bridge there- Collecting the courage given by the magic of letter, requested to all to put a bridge over the river. At first, no any villagers believed to me nor were helping hands. Some of them even mocked ‘she needs only’ by saying ‘Chameli Bridge’. After all, with a long effort a bridge made there. Now, I see and feel really satisfied when school students and campus students run on that bridge,
The germination of dream to make the bridge was first due to awareness of letter but it was not enough to dream of making. Furthermore, there were more then three hundred villagers’ soldiers and became possible; I came to comprehend that Iron Bridge is inevitable for river, for men, bridge of letter and, the bridge of community is the development of community itself.
Development process in technology, economy has mainly dynamited people in the world and will be continuing even more ratio in the future that culture of the certain community will face its direct impact. Diaspora has now become global phenomenon in the sense that everywhere in the world a man can access in order to search the space if he is capable. But the culture would shift one to another and existence of it makes liberal space.
Diaspora was started with religious perspective in 541BC onward. In the beginning the Diaspora was a kind of process in course of resettling of exile people. Now Diaspora is rampantly increasing not in religion but in the name of technology, education and economy.
Basically new inventions after revolution in industry and economy made people boundless to enter all over the world in search of market. It is no doubt that the exploration of many inhabited places began new way of expedition that helped people to shift from one to another place for better environment to live. From the view point of economy the Diaspora seems to have been acute in history and even at present.
In front of dynamic global economy now the country is not untouched. Since the split of the world into parts with the economical prosperity, people of the country began to shift towards developed countries. Economy and education are two factors that scenario of Diaspora can be scanned easily of which in search of better opportunity people are shifting.
Diaspora is not to great extent in favor of nation. In individual level, to some extent it seems to have brought changes with the changes of living style. But the impact it has given back to the nation is not in the favor of all the people of the state whose identity is determined by the individual who is struggling there.
Nepali Diaspora is everywhere in the world, their identity is recognized by the labor as such Nepali workers are working in many countries on various field. They are low paid wager. And their level of social status to that place is as low paid workers. Whereas an Indian whose sale in the market is higher than a Nepali and likewise the sale market of the rest of the countries have higher rate of an Indian. According to wage they are paid have been categorized in the market and the status of a country is recognized on that basis
Cold ice cream coffee on the table, with two of my friends spent one hour gossiping on various subject day all activities. The cold ice cream and the place both of them were completely new for me. It made me refreshed anyway.
Let me permit for further detail. We students and teachers from sagarmatha multiple college, around thirty speeded up in the morning at round 8:30 as our plan, our main plan to observe the dumping site and its impact on neighboring village. However I am emphasizing on overall the status of village. The dumping site was completely different as I pre-assumed in my mind. I had imaged that mould of garbage should have made no space to add more. But my imagination did not match at all; it has been almost plain shape made of garbage. But the environmental situation found more deteriorated in the vicinity area while visiting few houses of the villages.
Media spectra while staying in kathmandu had given a kind of information that local people have blocked to let it throw at the site. And also all of us were curious to know about facts.
Being small groups we filled some forms. We were four in my group. We had to walk up height at 90 degree angle. There was scattered pattern of houses in the village. We introduced them our identity and our purpose to come there. They whole heartedly supported us for answering the questions.
The village name was chaltar. Most of the houses are of bhujel caste. According to the evidences of collection, they have no any satisfied job. They were found involved in as wage worker. No enough food for the family, Hardly six months has it sustained from their own land. Rest of the months they go out to work and feed family. They have very poor educational condition. Up to collected information we found no one school leaving certificate graduate. Early marriage is dominant in the village. To talk about the health education, it will be incomplete with education. Thus education is controlling factor for heath. Lack of hospital in that area Bir hospital of kathmandu has been their reliable treatment centre. Any sorts of cases the ultimate option is to take patient to kathmandu. Witch doctor is more regularly working for the village then hospital. Lack of toilet and water are main problem that to get water they have no choice besides going 20 minutes away down to river from home. While asked to make new toilet they gave no response.
Due to dumping site they have even difficulty to have and sleep. As media circle said from the perspectives of kathmanduties the problem does not seem as major problem as kathmanduties. There are many barren fields that can be made dumping site if it is proceeded with systematically.
While asked why did you obstruct? Many of them expressed unknowingness about recent blockade from the community. Their dissatisfaction is not with recently using dumping site, rather it has to be fulfilled their demands like hospital, drinking water by government. “It is very essential for us, said one of the house owner”.
Is urban centered media ever tried to identify genuine issues of stake holders? Unless we try to recognize problem, one more brick would be added with political upheaval.
Politically misguided ideology seems to have made them scapegoat. They are accustomed to tolerate, their ignorance and illiteracy is their assets that they are happy with it. “Education always does not bring happiness. Ignorance sometimes brings bliss indeed.”
The cold ice cream and decorated java appeared cleared when we paid 540 rupees of three with tax. In my mind all of a sudden clicked a chapter of overdevelopment. There after I came to notice how overdevelopment process begins.
Academic icon was staring on book with a sib of coffee, May be he is in peace mind. I do not know when I get accustomed to be staring book with sib of coffee.